Are young Americans becoming less materialistic?

Are young people in America becoming less materialisic, compared to their parents? Writing on his Shaping Tomorrow site, futurist Mike Jackson says that with economic uncertainty on the risee, both young people and the business community in general are investing more in intangible services, including those related to education, data accumulation, and financial security.

Is this the same thing as people becoming, say, more reflective and spiritual? Probably not. The motive for the trend that Mike Jackson refers to appears to be long-term security, not self-development. Nonetheless it is an important trend for all of us to ‘contemplate! Marcus

Here’s how Mike Jackson summarises the implications of the trend:

This shift changes corporate strategyand marketing aimed towards Millennials. If Millennials are operating like microbusinesses, then companies must reframe their appeal in terms of business values such as security, collaboration and competitiveness. So they will be open to companies that create products and services to help them protect themselves, find allies, or prosper economically.

And here’s the article itself:

Millennials aren’t alone as they shift from tangibles (cars and homes) to intangibles (education and access to data). The business sector is moving along the same tangible-to-intangible path as the Millennials, perhaps at an even faster pace. Business spending on nonresidential structures, other than mining-related, is roughly 30% below the 2007 pre-recession highs, while investment in softwareis up almost 20% over the same period.

In fact, Milliennials are responding to the same trends as businesses, and for much the same reasons. Members of the younger generation are being forced — or encouraged — to think entrepreneurially, to view themselves as microbusinesses operating in a highly uncertain economic environment. Why buy a home or car if there are lower-risk, lower-cost options? Why invest in physical capital if spending on human capital and data can have bigger payoffs?

This shift changes corporate strategy and marketing aimed towards Millennials. If Millennials are operating like microbusinesses, then companies must reframe their appeal in terms of business values such as security, collaboration and competitiveness. So they will be open to companies that create products and services to help them protect themselves, find allies, or prosper economically.

For example, Millennials have a right to worry about the financial risk associated with buying a home. After all, they’ve seen home prices collapse unexpectedly, leaving millions of people with immense debts.

So to lure the younger generation back into the market, homebuilders need to broaden their definition of what they sell. Instead of just selling a physical product (the new home), homebuilders have to address the intangible core needs of security, collaboration, and competitiveness. One possibility: A sales contract that gives the buyer the right to sell back the house to the home builder at the original price for the first five years, minus an implicit cost of renting (obviously this simple version suffers from some moral hazard problems, but they can be fixed).

Or take cars. If Millennials want to socialize, they compare the cost of driving with the much lower cost of digital contact. That means automobile makers have to attract buyers by reducing auto operating costs–namely, dramatically increasing fuel economy. What’s more, cars have to be positioned as essential tools for maintaining effective contact with other people.

As we further consider marketing to Millennials as microbusinesses, two interesting questions immediately arise. First, will they continue to consume data at ever-increasing rates? The answer would seem to be yes, if the cost of data keeps falling. We are already seeing people effectively starting to investin their own personal databases, using cloud-based storage service such as Dropbox.

More difficult to assess is the question of whether this microbusiness mindset will persist into the childbearing years. From Gary Becker onwards, economists have formulated the decisions about whether to form households, to have children, and how to raise them, in economic terms. Yet it was never clear that people actually made their family decisions that way.

But Millennials may approach the decision about how many children to have, and how to educate them, with more of a business approach. Will this cause the number of children to rise or to fall? Children are a heavy investment, especially given the cost of college these days. Yet in a data-driven economy, they may be a valuable asset as well–which will open up whole new marketing opportunities.

Of course, it’s possible that as the economy improves, Millennials will retreat from their microbusiness mindset. But even so, companies that want to sell to Millennials will likely do better if they try to understand what young Americans need to prosper in the business sense.

[facebook] [twitter name=”marcustanthony1″] [retweet]

Integrated Intelligence: The Future of Intelligence?

ACADEMIC ARTICLES: Many classical depictions of intelligence suggest that individual human intelligence is part of a greater transpersonal consciousness. The concept of this integrated intelligence has resurfaced in contemporary times in a number of fields. This paper presents the ideas of four thinkers whose works incorporate integrated intelligence – Broomfield, Dossey, Wilber and Zohar. Inayatullah’s Causal Layered Analysis is used to deconstruct them. The four authors and their texts are compared and contrasted on some of their major themes. Finally, some of the most significant issues associated with integrated intelligence are introduced.

Title: Integrated Intelligence: The Future of Intelligence?
Author: Marcus T Anthony (Director, MindFutures Australia)
Publication details: Journal of Futures Studies, November 2003, 8(2): 39 – 54

Click on the link to upload the PDF

INI Future of Intelligence

[box type=”shadow”][facebook][twitter name=”marcustanthony1″][retweet][/box]

Education For Transformation: Integrated Intelligence in the Knowledge Society and Beyond

ACADEMIC ARTICLES: The purpose of this paper is to introduce several possibilities and potentials regarding the implementation
of integrated intelligence into the modern pubic education system and the knowledge economy which it serves.
There are thus two seminal questions. Firstly, what general uses might integrated intelligence have in the modern
secular public education system? Secondly, what place might integrated intelligence have in the long-term
development of education and society?

Title: Education For Transformation: Integrated Intelligence in the Knowledge Society and Beyond

Author: Marcus T Anthony (Director of MindFutures, Austraia)

Publication details: Journal of Futures Studies, Feb., 2005.

Click on the link below to download the PDF.

INI in Knowledge Economy

[facebook][twitter name=”marcustanthony1″] [retweet]

The Mind Reader: The latest novel by Marcus T Anthony


What if you could see into the unknown country within men, to the dark places that even they dare not venture…?

Greg Marks is an extraordinary young man. After having several incredible paranormal experiences, the formerly average university student finds that his mind can access an undreamed of intelligence: the light. Yet Greg struggles to understand his newfound abilities. He joins a mysterious group which teaches him how to harness his intuitive abilities – to read minds and receive communication from mysterious spiritual realms. But just when it seems that he has scaled undreamed of heights, he is confronted by dark forces that threaten his very mind and soul. For Greg Marks has become a threat to those who would prefer his knowledge not be revealed to the world.

The Mind Reader is the exciting semi-autobiographical novel by futurist and mystic Marcus T Anthony, detailing many astounding events that really happened to him.

Review by: Doug on Aug. 05, 2012 :
If you are a seeker on the Path, seek no further, at least for the moment. Maybe you’ve come here for a reason. Marcus Anthony’s newest work, Shadow Light is required reading. There are many books out there that will point you in the right direction, but few accomplish what Anthony has done here. In addition to being an edge-of-your-seat spiritual semi-autobiography (no small feat in itself), Anthony alerts the reader to dangers along the Path that he (or Greg Marks) was fated to encounter but that we, if we listen carefully to his message, can hopefully avoid. Shadow Light is such an engaging read that at the end I couldn’t quite believe that I’d sailed through 500 pages in three days in my spare time. From Marks’ struggles with closed minded university professors, to searching for love in some very wrong places, to barely escaping losing himself completely to a New Age group with some scary power issues of its own, Anthony’s novel is a welcome addition to the ranks both of paranormal thrillers and cautionary spiritual classics. Namaste, and Happy Reading!

The Mind Reader, MindFutures. $2.99. Click here to buy. ( adds $2 to the price in some regions)

The Troll Wars – & what to do about them

BLOG: In the old story of the Three Billy Goats Gruff there was a big, nasty troll lurking under the bridge ready to devour the poor little goats. What a nightmare! Now in the twenty-first century the word “troll” has a completely different meaning, and we all know what it is. Trolls are internet bullies, lurking not under the bridge but behind the anonymity internet pseudonyms. The nightmare continues!

But it doesn’t need to, and that is the whole point of this post. I’m going to tell you a foolproof way to deal with trolls.

There’s been a lot of discussion about cyber-bullying in the Australian media of late. About a week ago Australian media personality Charlotte Dawson Checked herself into a clinic, suffering a kind of breakdown after she was ‘flamed’ big time on twitter. She tweeted “Okay, you win” just before she went down, so to speak.

Dawson is perhaps not so innocent, as she herself has made a name for herself in being a particularly acerbic critic on Australia’s Next Top Model. Charlotte Dawson is the show’s resident female version of Simon Cowell. So some people have said she that she got what she deserved.

I’m not taking sides in this latest troll war. I am just going to make a very simple point here.

Remember the old saying, “Sticks and stones will break my bones, but names will never harm me”? It’s what parents always told their kids whenever they copped a little verbal bullying in the playground. Today’s internet users in general should take heed, for this is exactly how you should deal with most internet trolls. But how?

I am pretty much immune to the trolls. I just can’t take trolling seriously. As a person who has spent twenty years practicing mindfulness and meditative reflection – and dealing with their own childhood “issues” – I find that the projections of others now have a diminished effect on me. In real life, I still find I sometimes have emotional reactions to various criticisms and putdowns; but on the net it is pretty much a non-issue for me.

Readers of my old blog might remember a post I wrote about the late, young Australian bodybuilder and internet entrepreneur Zyzz. It went viral. It was a real hit. Unfortunately most of the hits were to my head and body. The post was about the limitations of relying too much on attaching yourself to physical beauty and gaining an illusory sense of power over others and life itself. Some of Zyzz’ fans found the post, and launched a hellish tirade of hate against me in the comments section. My blog posts typically get two or three comments. This one got fifty!

Here’s just a couple. Look away now if you don’t like your “F”s and “C””!

The writer of this blog is an old man with no idea how modern life works. GTFO u fukking kunt…

This blogger is a sad excuse of human life. Go fuck yourself you fat fuck piece of shit. What kind of low life writes lies about another dead human being. You’re a sad virgin 4chan fat fuck who needs a solid ass whooping. Cum at me Bro…

(The blogger) is mad, doesnt lift (weights) and is a phaggot. this was all just a silly post to bring views to his blogging. sad cunt…

To be honest, after an initial moderate shock at the intensity of the first two or three comments by the trolls, the comments had little effect on me. I left the posts up, with the exception of one, where the troll attacked another regular blog member and called her a “whore”. I found myself feeling compassion for the posters, because I know what it is like to be angry and full of hate. I’ve explored that side of my own psyche to a deep level. These guys were just like me, only younger and little less developed in their spiritual maturity.

Here’s why this kind of stuff has little effect on me these days. Firstly I have a simple policy of walking away from any internet discussion where I find myself having a strong emotional reaction to someone’s posting or ideas, or what they say about me. A comment can only create an emotional reaction in me when I ‘attach’ myself to the thing, and when I become entangled in the story of it. The same comment has little impact on me from a distance, when I just let go and pull out.

Secondly, I understand well the nature of the human mind, and its tendency to project on others. Ego’s judge and condemn, and their agenda is to diminish or destroy the thing being projected at. The projections of internet trolls are precisely the same thing that everyone does every time they judge someone or a situation in their everyday lives. In this sense judgment – including that of the trolls – is a reflection of a person’s inability to control their own mental projections, and has little to do with the person or thing being ‘beaten up’. (So don’t take them personally!)

Finally, I have learned to bring my mind into presence at will. That means that even if I do find myself entangled with another’s projections – in real life or on the net – I can instantly bring myself fully into mental silence; back into the world of the real, as Morpheus says in The Matrix. And all emotional “drama” is illusion. It’s just the mind playing in the story of the past, bringing forward the hurt, shame and anger that lies within. As I wrote in my book Discover Your Soul Template, as soon as we bring the mind to focus upon something we can see, hear or feel, the world of the mind vanishes into the ether. And if it doesn’t, it just means that there is some ‘issue’ or hurt within yourself that you need to bring to the surface. Sure, there are times in life when you have to confront genuine bullies, and the internet is no exception. But those times are few and far between.

Human futures can never be merely about more technology, comfort and convenience. We have to open a space for people to move inward and develop an understanding of their minds at a first-person level. Some futurists think that a future where we can load our minds onto computers will be a utopia. Personally, I think that even if this is done, if those ‘minds’ aree as unconscious and ego-based as the vast majority we encounter on the internet today, all that we will get is a cyber-dystopia. A universe of ranting mental projections raging against… well, the machine. A machine that we have imprisoned ourselves in.

So next time you come to cross the internet bridge and you find a troll lurking underneath, just blow him a kiss and walk away in silent presence. It’s a lot more peaceful.


[facebook] [twitter name=”marcustanthony1″] [retweet]

Great blogs!








Futures – Futurists Sohail Inayatullah and Ivana Milojevic Author of Darwin’s Lost Theory of Love  Mike Jackson’s forum for serious students of the future! Tom Lombardo’s Centre for Future Consciousness Peter von Stackelberg’s new blog about future trends beyond the information age


Other blogs worth checking out Simon Buckland’s musings on the nature of love and everything else that matters Barry Eaton’s extraordinary radio show Craig Weiler’s blog about psi phenomena and parapsychology Dean Radin, leading parapsychologist  Leonard Jacobson, master of presence  Rob & Trish Macgregor’s synchronicity blog Rupert Sheldrake, radical biologist

[twitter name=”marcustanthony1″]

A Personal Vision of the Integrated Society


ACADEMIC ARTICLES: In this paper I draw upon theory within critical and postconventional futures studies to develop a vision for some potential applications of advanced cognitive capacities in an idealised society of the future – the integrated city. Specifically I refer to the theory of integrated intelligence (Anthony, 2008). This theory posits that the human mind is embedded within a sea of consciousness, and that contemporary human beings can consciously utilise this consciousness. In this paper I focus upon the future of life and especially work in the modern city in developed Western and Asian localities.

Title: A Personal Vision of the Integrated Society

Author: Marcus T Anthony

Publication details: Journal of Futures Studies, August 2008, 13(1): 87 – 112


Click on the link below to download the PDF

A Personal Vision of the IS

[facebook] [twitter name=”marcustanthony”] [retweet]

Drugging the future generation

NEWS/MEDIA/BLOG POST: I found this quite insightful NYT article written by a parent whose son was medicated for, well, being a boy. It seems her little one was being fidgety, playful and was even trying to make other kids laugh. He was diagnosed with ADHD and put on Ritalin.

Before you read the article, take a look at this YouTube video of a playful monkey teasing a tiger. If we put some education authorities in charge of forestry, they’d have Ritalin drips hanging from every tree, to make the animals normal.


Modern education and culture (including the increasingly pervasive use of mobile devices) is conditioning kids to multi-task and exist in a state of constant distraction. Sugar-based diets full of refined carbs surely don’t help. So why not just teach kids mindfulness: how to be present? How to breathe? How to relax into presence?

Firstly, my perception as a long-time mindfulness practitioner is that most adults are not actually present either. They live in “the head” in a state of mental dissociation. How can someone like this teach a kid to be present?

Then there’s a pervasive and very large problem in modern medicine and the pharmaceutical industry in general; and this was pointed out by Rupert Sheldrake recently. There is no funding for interventions where there is no profit to be made from the solution. You can’t patent relaxation and breathing. And there’s no money for drug companies in teaching people how to actually be here.

Perhaps the best solution is for aware parents to teach their kids how to be present in the privacy of their own homes.



[facebook][retweet][twitter name=”marcustanthony1″]

Raising the Ritalin Generation


Published: August 18, 2012(New York Times)

I REMEMBER the moment my son’s teacher told us, “Just a little medication could really turn things around for Will.” We stared at her as if she were speaking Greek.

“Are you talking about Ritalin?” my husband asked.

Will was in third grade, and his school wanted him to settle down in order to focus on math worksheets and geography lessons and social studies. The children were expected to line up quietly and “transition” between classes without goofing around. This posed a challenge — hence the medication.

“We’ve seen it work wonders,” his teacher said. “Will’s teachers are reprimanding him. If his behavior improves, his teachers will start to praise him. He’ll feel better about himself and about school as a whole.”

Will did not bounce off walls. He wasn’t particularly antsy. He didn’t exhibit any behaviors I’d associated with attention deficit or hyperactivity. He was an 8-year-old boy with normal 8-year-old boy energy — at least that’s what I’d deduced from scrutinizing his friends.

“He doesn’t have attention deficit,” I said. “We’re not going to medicate him.”

The teacher looked horrified. “We would never suggest you do that,” she said, despite doing just that in her previous breath. “We aren’t even allowed by law to suggest that. Just get him evaluated.”

And so it began.

Like the teachers, we didn’t want Will to “fall through the cracks.” But what I’ve found is that once you start looking for a problem, someone’s going to find one, and attention deficit has become the go-to diagnosis, increasing by an average of 5.5 percent a year between 2003 and 2007, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As of 2010, according to the National Health Interview Survey, 8.4 percent, or 5.2 million children, between the ages of 3 and 17 had been given diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

What I didn’t know at the time is that there’s no clinical test for it: doctors make diagnoses based on subjective impressions from a series of interviews and questionnaires. Now, in retrospect, I understand why the statistics are so high.

We made an appointment with a psychiatrist on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. After we filled out an extensive questionnaire, she did the interviews and had Will’s teachers fill out short behavior questionnaires, called Conners rating scales, which assess things like “squirminess” on a scale of one to five. In many cases, I discovered, diagnoses hinge on the teachers’ responses.

A few weeks later we heard back. Will had been given a diagnosis of inattentive-type A.D.H.D. It was explained to us this way: Some children who are otherwise focused (Will had been engaged during his interview), have a hard time focusing in “distracting situations” — in Will’s case, school. The doctor prescribed methylphenidate, a generic form of Ritalin. It was not to be taken at home, or on weekends, or vacations. He didn’t need to be medicated for regular life.

It struck us as strange, wrong, to dose our son for school. All the literature insisted that Ritalin and drugs like it had been proved “safe.” Later, I learned that the formidable list of possible side effects included difficulty sleeping, dizziness, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, headache, numbness, irregular heartbeat, difficulty breathing, fever, hives, seizures, agitation, motor or verbal tics and depression. It can slow a child’s growth or weight gain. Most disturbing, it can cause sudden death, especially in children with heart defects or serious heart problems.

I consulted our longtime pediatrician, who told me that if Will had A.D.H.D., medication was the only way to give him real relief. I also read through hundreds of online posts, though I stopped after a diatribe about a nation poisoning children’s developing brains.

Meanwhile, Will was sitting out of music class on a regular basis. In addition to hating the recorder, he’d discovered he could get a cute girl to laugh by making funny faces. We decided to trust the doctors and the school. If Will really had A.D.H.D., we should treat it.

Starting in fourth grade, he took his medicine every morning, and he went to the school nurse after lunch for another pill. The doctor raised the dosage until the teachers saw results.

One afternoon, Will told me that during reading period he forgot to talk to his friends. “Everything got really quiet,” he explained. “It was like I was inside the book.” It was what his teachers had wanted. What we’d wanted. For the medication to focus him.

I should have been elated that the problem was so simple to fix. But I wasn’t. I couldn’t help wondering why forgetting to talk to his friends was a good thing and why we were drugging him to become a good student.

At home, he didn’t seem different, just hungry, since he now ate almost nothing at school. When I did some research, I learned that methylphenidate is also prescribed as an appetite suppressant.

The next year, in fifth grade, the pills stopped working. The doctor upped the dosage a few more times, then switched medications twice, but nothing. I thought back to Will’s fourth grade teacher, who had liked him. Then I thought about his current teacher; some of the other parents had complained that she didn’t seem to know what to do with boys at all. Maybe Will’s successful fourth grade year had had less to do with the medication than we’d all believed.

Sometime toward the middle of fifth grade, he simply refused to take the pills. He’d seen a television show about a girl whose parents kicked her out of the house for crushing and snorting her Adderall, and that convinced him that his medication was too dangerous.

THAT was five years ago. Will is about to start his sophomore year of high school. He’s 6 feet 3 inches tall, he’s on the honor roll and he loves school. For him, it was a matter of growing up, settling down and learning how to get organized. Kids learn to speak, lose baby teeth and hit puberty at a variety of ages. We might remind ourselves that the ability to settle into being a focused student is simply a developmental milestone; there’s no magical age at which this happens.

Which brings me to the idea of “normal.” The Merriam-Webster definition, which reads in part “of, relating to, or characterized by average intelligence or development,” includes a newly dirty word in educational circles. If normal means “average,” then schools want no part of it. Exceptional and extraordinary, which are actually antonyms of normal, are what many schools expect from a typical student.

If “accelerated” has become the new normal, there’s no choice but to diagnose the kids developing at a normal rate with a disorder. Instead of levelling the playing field for kids who really do suffer from a deficit, we’re ratcheting up the level of competition with performance-enhancing drugs. We’re juicing our kids for school.

We’re also ensuring that down the road, when faced with other challenges that high school, college and adult life are sure to bring, our children will use the coping skills we’ve taught them. They’ll reach for a pill.

Bronwen Hruska is the author of the forthcoming novel “Accelerated.”

Enough Already

BLOG POST: After living thirteen years in East Asia I now find myself living back in the old country, Australia. In fact it has been sixteen years since I left The Lucky Country; and just three weeks since I got back. So what do I notice that is different?

The first thing I appreciated is just how quiet it is here. To be fair, I am living with my brother in a small country town of Morwell (two hours drive from Melbourne), so it’s a huge contrast to the hustle and bustle of Hong Kong. In Hong Kong it’s a fight just to find a seat at a coffee shop or at the shopping mall. The streets are teeming with people, and quite often you have to literally shoulder people as they push and shove their way around you. When I walk down the street here, I am lucky to see any other human beings at all! The quiet is both nice… and a little disconcerting. One is often left to deal with one’s own sense of life and experience.

It is beautiful here. There is green grass, there are trees. The sky is vast and blue, with crisp white and grey clouds moving slowly overhead. There are birds too, something that one almost never sees in China. Indeed I have been attacked by several magpie mothers; a common hazard in the spring, as mothers attempt to protect the nests which contain their young.

At night the heavens here open up to the vastness of space, a million stars greeting the observer from scores, hundreds and thousands of light-years away. I can’t ever remember seeing a star in China or Hong Kong. It was often hard enough to see the moon or sun. In Beijing the sky is almost always grey, even when there are no clouds.

My brother and I drove to a house just fifteen minutes away from here a few days ago. There was abundant scenery to be seen; in the yard there was a horse, a goat and three dogs. I sent my wife a few photos. She is in Beijing at present. She said she was very jealous of the natural world she saw, and the “endless rolling fields”.

But it’s damn expensive here. When I arrived at Melbourne airport, I caught a fifteen-minute airport bus to a downtown train station. It cost me AUS$17. By contrast, the fast train to Hong Kong airport from downtown only costs about AUS$11. It travels ten times further than the airport bus in Melbourne. In China I can travel on a fast train from Beijing to the coastal city of Qingdao – a six hour journey – for about AUS$30. Everything else is really expensive, too. The cost of living here is extreme – with some exceptions. I was in a department store today and saw men’s shoes for as little as $12 – made in China, of course! Rent is much cheaper than Hong Kong, and that even holds true closer to Melbourne than I am. In Hong Kong an extremely unfortunate situation has developed whereby the government and property developers have taken a stranglehold on the city. With each passing year people are forced into smaller and smaller apartments at higher and higher rents. Most are 400-500 square feet, and that accommodates entire families. The latest trend is for the young in Hong Kong to live in subdivided flats. Landlords can make more money by dividing their already tiny flats into several rooms. There university graduates living in “flats” as small as 16 square feet. That’s about twice the size of your average coffin.

In Hong Kong and China I ate at restaurants every day, often two times daily. My wage was high, and the food cheap. In my three weeks back in Australia I have not eaten once at a restaurant. I am making my own lunch and cooking dinner again for the first time in over a decade. That is not an exaggeration. I cannot remember the last time I cooked a meal before my return!

Everything else costs more too. The internet, mobile phone bills, cinema tickets, coffee shops, you name it.

I have been complaining about the cost of living here, but then yesterday I listened in to a webcast by my favourite spiritual teacher, Leonard Jacobson. He was talking about abundance. He said that abundance does not always come in the form you think it does. Later that day I went to the gym not far from my brother’s house. As usual, after entering the gym I brought myself into presence by focusing on my breath, and my body. To do this I bring my energy out of “the head”, and get really grounded. When I did this yesterday it hit me. I already have access to abundance beyond imagining. All my immediate needs have been met since I arrived here. My judgment at the cost of living was just getting in the way of my experiencing how “rich” I already am.


After my workout, I went into the changing room, and ran the water in the washbasin. I cupped the water in my hand, and brought it to my mouth. I drank. It was cool and refreshing. “Wow!” I said to myself. For thirteen years in Asia I was unable to drink from a tap. Pure, fresh running water is available to everyone in Australia. What a gift! Then I looked in the mirror, and saw a very healthy 46 year old man staring back at me. How wonderful it is that I have my health, and can even engage in the vanity of going to a gym to shape my middle-aged physique. That was unimaginable in my parents’ day. I then walked out into the parking lot and jumped in my recently purchased car. Before my return to Australia I had not driven for thirteen years. Now  I find myself driving in a wonderful vehicle; second-hand but in great condition.

When I got back to my brother’s place, he had cooked dinner for me. It was a cool winter’s evening, but the gas heater was already on, warming the simple house.

Yes, that was when I really got it. The present is already rich in meaning and wonder. Why then do we always want for so much more? Many modern “spiritual” philosophies also encourage people to want more, and even that it is “spiritual” to do so. The New Age movement is full of such thinking. The best-selling The Secret (video and books) is perhaps the classic case. It has sold countless millions of copies. Yet as far as I am aware, nowhere in any of its teachings does it tell us the greatest secret of all. That there are riches beyond imagining right here and now, if only we stop, breathe deeply and still ourselves long enough to see and feel the magic.

In presence the mind stops longing and returns to a state of grace, where goodness is seen in everything; love in everyone. Gratitude becomes spontaneous. That is because in the silence of the present moment, we become love itself. And what a priceless gift that is.



[facebook] [twitter name=”marcustanthony1″] [retweet]

Deep Futures: Beyond Money and Machines

ACADEMIC ARTICLE: This is a paper written for Nanyang University of Technology (Singapore). The purpose is to briefly introduce the concept of Deep Futures and the emerging discipline of Postconventional Futures Studies (PFS). The goal is to outline potential applications and benefits for Foresight and Futures practitioners. Deep Futures can be viewed in a historical context, as a development which emerged from earlier expressions of Futures Studies. DF incorporates recognised Futures methodologies and philosophies, and then adds new concepts and tools incorporating other ways of knowing. The primary function of DF at present is to act as a provocation to the dominant discourses of all disciplines, and to offer dissent to more conventional Foresight and Futures work. It thus presents the possibility of deepening the way we see the past, present, and future.

Author: Marcus T Anthony

Publication details: Risk Assessment & Horizon Scanning, (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore). Feb. 2010 .


Click on the link to download the PDF, or simply read the text, below.



[twitter name=”marcustanthony1″] [retweet] [facebook]


Deep Futures: Beyond Money and Machines

Marcus T. Anthony, 2010

(For Nanyang Technological University, Singapore)

“…it should be our challenge, as practitioners, to turn…foresight into insight.” (Andrew Curry, quoted in Inayatullah 2008b: 76)


“Many people believe that emotions stand in opposition to rational thought, but scientific evidence suggests the opposite. While emotions can overwhelm your rationality, you cannot be rational without being emotional. Emotions predate thoughts in the evolution of the human species and our personal development. Emotion can disrupt reasoning in certain circumstances, but without it there is no reasoning at all. Traditional cognitive models don’t understand that reduction in emotion may constitute an equally important source of irrational behavior.”

(Neuroscientist Antonia Demasio, quoted Burke 2009: 99)


It was Washington DC Metro Station on a cold January morning in 2007. A man peeled a violin from his case, placed his hat before him, and proceeded to play six Bach pieces. During his sixty minutes in that place, some 3,000 people passed by, most on their way to work (Weingarten 2007).

Three minutes after the man began playing, a middle-aged gentleman stopped to look for a few seconds, before hurrying on. About four minutes after that, a woman threw a dollar into the hat and continued past. A couple of minutes later, a young man leaned against the wall nearby and listened for a few moments. Then he checked his watch and left. Next, a boy of about three years stopped, but his mother pulled him away. As she dragged him off, he kept turning back to look at the man with the violin. Similar scenes unfolded as several other children took an interest in the musician, but in every case the parents dragged them on.

In total, only six people stopped to listen, most for just a few moments. About twenty gave money, then hurried off. The man collected a total of $32. He finished playing and humbly left. There was no applause, nor any indication his playing had been appreciated.

Yet this had been no ordinary street performance. The violinist was Joshua Bell, a world-renowned player, and he had just played one of the most intricate pieces ever written. His violin was worth 3.5- million dollars. Just two days prior to his inauspicious subway performance, Joshua Bell had played to a packed house in Boston, where the cost of a seat averaged one hundred dollars.

The subway performance had been organised by the Washington Post as part of a social experiment about perception, taste, and people’s priorities.[ii] In commonplace situations, where time has been reassigned to focus attention upon other things, how readily can we perceive the present? Beauty? Do we stop to appreciate the subtle? Are we capable of recognising human passion, human expression in a novel context? Have the cognitive spaces of our lives been colonised by an unconscious and invisible hegemony?

One person who did stop a moment to observe Bell was a woman named Jackie Hessain. Her perception tells us much about the nature of the modern world. When later asked what she had noted, she replied: “…nothing about him struck me as much of anything.” (Weingarten 2007)

In fact she was not listening to the music at all. Instead, her perception was mediated by the social context of the situation and layers of subtle, unexamined meaning.

“I really didn’t hear that much,” she said. “I was just trying to figure out what he was doing there, how does this work for him, can he make much money, would it be better to start with some money in the case, or for it to be empty, so people feel sorry for you? I was analysing it financially.” (Weingarten 2007, italics added)

She was then asked what she does for a living.

“I’m a lawyer in labor relations with the United States Postal Service. I just negotiated a national contract.” (Weingarten 2007)

Hessain’s delimited perception here is a function of the key way of knowing she employed within the situation: analysis, or “figuring out.” It is my contention that Hessain’s preferred way of knowing is one of the dominant ways of knowing of modern education, and especially modern academia, as I have argued elsewhere (Anthony 2008). Here what I refer to as critical rationality has assumed a hegemony over and above other ways of knowing, as I shall explain, below. Foresight and Futures work is no exception.

The second important factor to note is that the mind is a self-organising system (de Bono 2009). What we focus upon expands. Hessain’s attention within the context of Joshua Bell’s subway performance, and possibly across the broader context of her life, is upon financial concerns and “getting ahead.” Similarly, where the study of futures focuses upon money, technology, and power, the futures that are discussed and imagined may be artificially narrow. I refer to these futures as “money and machine” futures.

The discipline of Critical Futures Studies (CFS) was initiated to address some of these cultural delimitations and their perceptual limitations (Inayatullah 2004). In theory it allows for other ways of knowing to be employed, yet in practice CFS remains heavily analytical. A more recent expression of Futures studies—Postconventional Futures Studies (PFS)—may be a means to build upon the cognitive insights identified intellectually within CFS, by permitting a greater legitimacy for, and incorporation of, other ways of knowing, especially the intuitive, the creative, and the spiritual. As opposed to Critical Futures studies, Postconventional Futures actively encourage the full employment of these other ways of knowing. Theory moves into praxis.

There are several things that I am going to discuss in this paper. In the first section I am going to trace the historical process behind the present domination of critical/rational ways of knowing in modern education and science. In the following section I shall address the question, “What are Deep Futures?” The third section three queries, “Why do we need Deep Futures?” I then outline several specific Postconventional Futures tools and methods. Finally, I use a specific example—the teenage drug problem in Hong Kong—as an example of the way PFS might be used in a real world policy situation.


Foresight, Knowing, and History

Like the famous “gorilla in the room” experiment (Simons & Chabris 1999) where people are asked to fill out a questionnaire, and many fail to notice a man in a gorilla suit who enters the room, the Joshua Bell situation tells us much. People tend to see what they focus upon, and their relationship with the immediate environment and the world greatly influences their ability to perceive. It is also my contention that it also greatly retards their capacity to feel. This is of the greatest importance for what I am about to argue.

The self-stultifying function of paradigms, and the ways that dominant discourses control and mediate knowledge, has been widely discussed (Inayatullah 2004, Kuhn 1986, Sardar 1998). Paradigms delimit not only the boundaries of knowledge, but also restrict what questions can be asked and dictate what ways of knowing are legitimate (Grof 2000). Poststrucuturalism, and in its wake, Critical Futures Studies, have emphasised that discourses tend to be dominated by both explicit and implicit power struggles (Inayatullah 2004). Feminists, for example, have long decried that modern science is patriarchal, and that women’s voices and feminine ways of knowing have been largely eliminated from science today (Eisler 2004, Milojevic 2005). Further, qualitative analyses which I have conducted of popular and academic tests dealing with the subject of human intelligence indicate that the computer metaphor dominates representations of the brain, creating a mechanistic and reductionist view of consciousness, and restricting alternative representations of mind. This hegemonic problematique has flowed through to mainstream education and academia, where other ways of knowing have been stripped from many discourses (Anthony 2008).

The dominant ways of knowing in modern Western education and science have historical roots. The Western episteme has established critical/rational ways of knowing as the dominant cognitive processes which underpin Western knowledge. Around the 1500s scholasticism developed in Europe. This movement, which was central to the founding of modern education systems and universities, featured classification as its prime way of knowing. By 1800 analysis had fully developed in the social sciences, and around 1850 experimentation became a key way of knowing in the sciences (Pickstone 2000). These three dominant ways of knowing can typically be seen in the scientific method and the peer review system that underpin the publication of scientific research in the present age.

Finally, the birth of the modern personal computer after the mid-twentieth century heralded a new way of knowing. The computer became a prime mediator of knowledge, and with it came the advent of computer rationality (Klein 2003) as a highly influential way of knowing. The separation between observer and subject became even more distinct. Data came to be mediated via the machine on the desktop. As just one example, where once weather forecasters had relied, in part, upon an intuitive connection with the environment—going outside to check weather vanes, to feel the wind on their faces and the humidity in the air—they have now come to sit before computers and analyse data fed to them via sophisticated computer models.[iii]

History has not been so kind to some other ways of knowing, however—especially affective and intuitive cognition. Intuitive, mystical, and spiritual ways of knowing had often been suppressed throughout the history of Western thought. Now they have been almost completely crushed (Tarnas 2000, Anthony 2005b, 2006).




Other Ways of Knowing, Other Ways of Thinking, Other Ways of Being

Yet, what exactly is “intuition”? There are multiple definitions, but for the sake of manageability I refer to two main kinds of intuition. The first is mundane intuition, which is the subliminal processing of information in the brain. This intuition makes itself known through subtle feelings which bubble up from just below the surface of cognition. Mundane intuition has not been widely investigated, but there is a body of legitimate research available (Torff & Sternberg 2001). Because this intuition is explained in terms of known brain physiology, it does not challenge mainstream scientific thinking about the mind and brain.

The second kind of intuition I refer to as mystical intuition, which has featured little in research, and is thus poorly understood. Few researchers want to touch it, because mystical intuition contains references to spiritual, mystical, and religious experience. It brings in discussion of psi phenomena and the paranormal, and the idea of the extended mind—that consciousness transcends the brain.[iv] There is an effective “psi taboo” (Radin 2006) in modern science, making this domain of inquiry unattractive for most researchers. The provocation I present to Foresight and Futures practitioners is that both mundane and mystical intuition have legitimate cognitive functions, and are potentially invaluable in our work.


The split in the modern mind

The development of modern science thus brought a rapid increase in our ability to process and develop rationality, as well as scientific knowledge and technologies. Yet this tremendous progress in the hard and soft sciences came at a great price. It has created a split in the Western mind (Tarnas 2000).

By the turn of the twentieth century another realm of knowledge had become suppressed, silenced. The once influential Romantic Movement lost momentum. Its prime ways of knowing had involved intuition and an emotive relationship with the other: the deep connection of the knower and the known. This affective cognitive process stood in complete contrast to the detachment of the scientific method, which necessitated that the observer be disconnected from the subject of observation. Even in the analytical and humanistic disciplines, academics were eventually forced to remove affective language and first person references. To generalise, Foresight and Futures work has been no exception.

The “alienated mind” was born (Anthony 2008). This is mind which is emotively disconnected from its environment, and by implication, from its intuitive and emotional body. Inner worlds—contemplation, reflexivity, meditation and prayer—have been largely erased. The advent of computer rationality meant that intuition was drowned out by the noise of mobile phones, MP3 players, and laptops. The intuitive and spiritual has become part of the disowned future (Inayatullah 2008). As the twentieth century evolved, and life became increasingly individualistic and focused upon career, achievement, and entertainment, this estrangement from inner worlds became entrenched across the Western world. It has now become the norm in developed Asian cultures as well.

This historical process has enormous implications for foresight practitioners and futurists.


The implications

An important aspect of Foresight is being able to perceive the trends, processes, and “signals” which are creating and affecting change within the present, and in turn shaping futures. The key point is that the above-mentioned historical hegemony means that these are now identified and processed via critical/rational ways of knowing, and especially via the mass media and computer. The whole process is mediated via databases, search engines, computer hardware, and sophisticated computer models. Computer rationality has now become the dominant way of knowing.

Given this problematique, what kind of information might we be failing to perceive? How can we be sure that we are being attentive to an optimal array of data, and processing it in an impartial way? Merely expanding the volume of information is not enough. It is the way information is being perceived and handled that is a key issue here.


Deep Futures

Futures are not simply dry Scenarios, not merely the compact, politically correct visions of policy makers and government think tanks. They are the images which fire our hopes and dreams within the present. Futures, whether preferred, probable, or possible, can call us to action, and can inspire us to reach higher and further. Human beings do not respond well to dry, empirical data. If that were the case, data for increasing greenhouse emissions would have seen a much greater shift in consumer awareness than we have observed. We human beings need something to be passionate about, something that gives us meaning and hope, something that brings us into deep relationship with each other, the world, and Gaia. Because they employ other ways of knowing and valorise intuition and inner worlds, Postconventional Futures methods, if diligently applied, can deepen our futures work. This paper title begins with the phrase “Deep Futures,” because I believe that the greatest benefit of Postconventional Futures Studies methods may be that they can help us envisage and create deeply meaningful futures with depth.

To summarise, futures with depth contain these elements:

  • They inspire. They instill us with passion, and ignite something deep within us.
  • They are the big picture. They encourage us to see things in broader perspective, including the cultural, national, civilisational, the Gaian, and the spiritual.
  • They honour both the head and the heart. They permit rational and intuitive ways of knowing and living to co-exist.
  • They permit expression of multiple cultures and worldviews, not just dominant ones.
  • They are deeply meaningful, not merely interesting, amusing, or engaging.
  • They permit deep connection with each other, with nature, and with inner and spiritual worlds.
  • They honour universal human values: peace, beauty, freedom, justice, and love (including freedom of thought and information, and financial freedom).
  • People and Gaia lie at the heart of the future, not merely money and machines.

Critical Futures Studies inform us that all Futures work is embedded within worldviews and paradigms, and this typically includes implicit hegemonies. The other becomes part of the disowned future (Inayatullah 2008). Like so many civilisations, the Western critical/rational worldview tends to see its version of social expression as a result of ineluctable historical forces—in this case the march of progress away from superstition and the primitive and toward the rational and technological. Many non-Western countries have adopted a version of this worldview as their preferred future. Chinese central government policy makers, for example, have developed the model of “scientific development” (Hu 2005), which, in practice, is extreme capitalism without democracy. Yet futures centred within the critical/rational worldview are but one expression of multiple possible futures. A key role of the postconventional futurist is to offer provocative alternatives (Slaughter 2006).

The concept of Deep Futures is effectively a synthesis of the critical/rational and mystical/spiritual[v] worldviews (Anthony 2008). The concept of DF is broadly representative of the philosophical perspective of postconventional futurists in general. Deep Futures is therefore no less “subjective” than any other expression of Futures.

The kind of science, education, and culture that we have developed in modern society make us proficient at analysing, classifying, and experimenting. But we are not so good at putting things back together, at identifying what is important, what is moral, what is great. Deep Futures has a prime aim of bringing together rational and intuitive thinking, to assist us in developing minds and futures that can help us thrive in a dynamic and rapidly changing world (Anthony 2005a).[vi]


The Four Branches of Futures Studies and Their Role in Policy

Australian futurist Richard Slaughter (2003) sees Futures Studies as having evolved through four distinct phases. The first was the empirical tradition, which was most prominent in the United States. The second was a “culturally based” approach—predominantly European—which eventually led to Critical Futures Studies. Then in the third phase an international and multicultural thrust emerged, which Slaughter finds is still developing. Slaughter’s fourth phase has been the emergence of Postconventional Futures.[vii]

We can depict the development of Futures Studies as in Figure 1, below.


Figure 1. The four phases of the development of Futures Studies, according to Slaughter (2003)


The development of Futures Studies reflects trends in Western thought before and during the twentieth century. Empirical Futures is the hard-fact approach, typical of the Western empirical tradition and experimentalism which quickened after 1850 (Pickstone 2000). Critical Futures Studies have been influenced by the mid-twentieth century postmodernists and poststructuralists, especially Michel Foucault (Ianyatullah 2004). Multi-perspectives are consistent with an addition of broader thinking in line with multi-culturalism. Finally, the postconventionalists have been influenced by thought emerging in the alternative movement of the 1960s and ’70s, Eastern philosophy, and some of the advances in physics, systems thinking, and consciousness studies of recent decades.[viii]

Each phase has its distinct tools, and in turn the ways of knowing employed vary. Therefore each has the potential to affect the development of policy in different ways.




The empiricists and trends analysers

This group of futurists is concerned about identifying the thrust of change, eliciting trends, and making extrapolations about the future. John Naisbitt’s (1996) Megatrends books are a classic example. Their prime analytical process involves reading signals from the environment, and then extrapolating possible and probable futures. A more recent and commercially successful example is the Foresight Network.[ix] This company, run by futurist Michael Jackson, engages in extensive Horizon Scanning, taking much of its data from academic journals and the mass media. It offers forecasts for corporations and governments.

Trends analysers often engage in some degree of speculation and sometimes engage in Visioning, but they tend not to question deeply the presuppositions of dominant discourses.


Critical and Multi-perspective Futures studies

Critical and Multi-perspective Futures Studies can help to examine issues at a greater depth than do the empiricists. These branches of Futures Studies seek to help individuals and organisations better understand the processes of change, so that wiser and preferred futures can be created (Inayatullah 2008: 5, italics added).

Prediction is not the primary thrust of Multi-perspective and Critical Futures Studies, as they are more concerned with identifying the agents of change, who controls things, and who is going to benefit (Inayatullah 2008). A problem with dominant discourses within particular domains of enquiry is that they tend not to question the givens, the basic concepts which underpin discourses. In other words, the paradigm does not get named. The result is that thinkers may be too close to their subject matter, and fail to achieve the distance necessary to see alternative perspectives (Inayatullah 2004).

Some notable futurists in this domain are Jim Dator (2009), Zia Sardar (1998), and Ivana Milojevic (2005).


Postconventional Futures studies

Consider the following knowledge claims made by Sohail Inayatullah. They encapsulate the essence of Postconventional Futures Studies.

  • Questioning assumptions at every level: the mission, the goals, the product, core competencies.
  • Anticipatory—scanning the future, using all of our ways of knowing, all of our senses.
  • Participatory—including others, since non-inclusion of one variable can change outcomes in unanticipated ways (Inayatullah 2002: 121).

In this instance, Inayatullah is referring to Anticipatory Action Learning, but within the context of his deep approach to Futures. Inayatullah’s approach encapsulates the essence of good Futures work: deep questioning and a commitment to action, to change.

Postconventional Futures Studies incorporate all the tools of the empiricists and the critical futurists, and then adds some. The key distinction is that postconventionalists incorporate data and ways of knowing which are often excluded from dominant discourses in modern Western and developed societies, and make this a central aspect of their approach. In particular, there may be an inclusion of arguments, perspectives, and the data of emotional, intuitive, spiritual, and visionary human experience. In other words, the inner dimensions of cognitive experience return to the discourse. Some postconventionalists, such as the Integral Futures practioners (who employ the thinking of Ken Wilber), may actively seek dissent (Slaughter 2006).

In my own writing I have introduced the idea of deliberate provocation, taking the term from Edward de Bono (2009). de Bono points out that the mind is a self-organising system, and that traditional thinking tends to hinder genuinely novel perception and creativity. Some of the concepts and tools I have developed fall beyond the boundaries of critical/rational thinking. These include integrated intelligence (Anthony 2008) (where intelligence is viewed as transpersonal, rather than being restricted to individual brains); the Harmonic Circles method (Anthony 2007) (where participants assume responsibility for psychological projections at the other via deep introspection); and Integral Inquiry (Anthony 2010b) (where research is carried out while deliberately using specific tools that require the application of mundane and mystical intuition).

My concepts and tools are deliberately designed to make users uncomfortable, in particular with the use of other ways of knowing, thinking, and doing.

The ideas and methods used by postconventionalists may lead to some degree of tension with more conservative thinkers in dominant science and education. However, it is my contention that, if skillfully managed, this tension can be used to great benefit, and as a means to explore futures in greater depth. It can help us to question more deeply the presuppositions of more conventional Futures work, and dominant discourses in general.

Finally, while Postconventional Futures practitioners adopt an approach which is provocative and encourages deep reflection, the process is not meant to impose an alternative worldview on stakeholders.

While the categorisation of “postconventional” is not hard and fast, futurists employing an approach which is consistent with my definition include Marcus Bussey (2009), Linda Groff (2008), Sohail Inayatullah (2009), Tom Lombardo (2007), Richard Slaughter (2006), and the writer Marcus T. Anthony (see references).


Some tools of PFS

One of the benefits of being a postconventional futurist is that all the tools of the other branches of Futures Studies can be included in the futures process. The specific methods and tools employed, and the range and depth of analyses, can be varied according to the nature of the audience and the aims of the gathering. In my own writing and presentations I can refer to empirical studies and trends analysis, use Causal Layered Analysis (Inayatullah 2008), or encourage participants to explore intuitive processes.

In some situations it may necessary to emphasise different tools. For example, more conservative institutions and audiences within the hard sciences may be more receptive to empirical methods and analyses. In such a situation, a postconventional futurist might focus upon the data, but then develop a deeper analysis via tools like Causal Layered Analysis. This is an approach which Sohail Inayatullah employs.

Bringing in the deeper psychological and spiritual perspectives of the postconventional futurist may be difficult, or even impossible, in some circumstances. The key is to appreciate just how far an audience can be stretched in terms of their understanding and their worldview. As futurist John Naisbitt (2007) says, one should not get so far ahead of the parade so that nobody can see where you are.

Table 1, below, is a generalised depiction of some Futures and Foresight tools and approaches which are suitable for each phase of Futures Studies. The table also indicates that there is an approximate correlation between the branches of Futures Studies and the four levels of Inayatullah’s (2004) Causal Layered Analysis. As mentioned, each branch incorporates the tools and ideas of the previous branch(es).


Phase of Futures Studies

Tools and Methods

Approximate Level of Causal Layered Analysis


Trends analysis, Horizon Scanning, data collection & analysis, Scenarios.[x]

Level 1. The Litany

Critical and Multi-perspective

Multiple perspectives, incorporating the other, Scenarios, Backcasting, Visioning, Causal Layered Analysis.

Levels 2 & 3. The Social/Systems & Worldview/Paradigm Levels

Postconventional Futures Studies

Causal Layered Analysis, Integral Futures, Harmonic Circles, Integrated Inquiry, integrated intelligence and other ways of knowing, deep Visioning.

Level 4. The Myth/Metaphors Level


Table 1: The phases of Futures Studies and their preferred methods


Why we need PFS and Deep Futures

Ultimately all policy requires choices. Deep Futures, as I define them, potentially allow for a greater diversity of stakeholders to participate in decision-making, using a broader range of ways of knowing. The analytical tools of Multi-perspective and Critical Futures Studies open spaces for “others” to participate; the introspective component of Postconventional Futures Studies permits a theoretical inclusion of the other ways of knowing.

We have reached a threshold in human history. Now, early in the twenty-first century, there is a convergence of critical issues which threaten our very existence: climate change and environmental degradation; terrorism and a possible clash of civilisations; the growing gap between rich and poor; the incredible power—and danger—of science and technology; and most recently, the financial crisis. Deep Futures can be employed within this context of crisis, and for the following reasons.

  1. We need tools which provoke new ways of thinking—to bring to attention, and then challenge, existing paradigms and ways of doing things.
  2. We need ways to get people to really engage with each other, to get them thinking beyond their entrenched perspectives and worldviews, and their different paradigms.
  3. We need deep connection with others and the world, and the reigniting of inner worlds and intuitive knowledge—other ways of knowing alongside the rational mind.
  4. We need to honour the data and empirical methods, but to contextualise them (Hawkins 2002).[xi]
  5. We need responsible, adaptable, creative, and wise leaders and citizens (Moffet 1994, Pink 2005).
  6. We need processes which place people and relationships back at the centre of society and culture. We need to move beyond money and machines futures.


Money and Machine Futures

The essential philosophical position I take is that the combination of capitalism and technoscience[xii] creates societies dominated by money and machines, bereft of depth, heart, soul, and deep connection. Futures without depth. Such shallow futures stultify the development of inner worlds, the balanced connection with emotional and intuitive ways of knowing, as perception becomes fixed upon external loci and immediate gratification. Money and machine futures take people away from the present moment, where the connection with the intuitive is most readily felt in a relaxed and centred state (Jacobson 2008). The Joshua Bell anecdote at the beginning of this paper exemplifies this process.

Worldviews and paradigms are typically implicit and unconscious (Kuhn 1964), and thus tend to remain unexamined; the unexamined potentially becomes hegemonic. The self-organising nature of mind tends to reinforce the known, and “the thinking trap” may occur when we do not deliberately invoke provocation to stir ourselves out of the human tendency toward linear thinking (de Bono 2009). Policy makers, organisations, and futurists are not exempt from this problematique.

Therefore we need ways to avoid becoming trapped in shallow futures. We need ways to ensure that our policies are informed by a broader awareness of the social, cultural, and paradigmatic constraints that bind us. It is my contention that Postconventional Futures methods can help.

Money and machine futures depict future society as being like a great machine. Computers and technologically advanced and prosperous cities are central motifs. These are images of the future dominated by flying cars, robots, and glass domes. They often make minimal reference to inner worlds, the human psyche, the emotional, psychological, or spiritual.

Policy which focuses upon science and technology at the expense of inner worlds and connection will likely create social and psychological problems, as is discussed later in this paper.


Futures Methods with Depth

Here I outline several Deep Futures methods. Some of these are methods in development, and require further application before their genuine value can be determined.


Causal Layered Analysis (Sohail Inayatullah 2004, 2009)

Causal Layered Analysis (CLA) is a poststructuralist Futures method developed by futurist Sohail Inayatullah (2004). CLA can help examine the deeper meanings imbedded within problems, texts, and discourses through an exploration of four specific levels. It is particularly useful as a means to conduct inquiry into the nature of past, present, and future. It opens up the present and the past to create the possibility of alternative futures.

In other words, it can deepen our understanding of the future.

CLA is an extremely flexible tool, and the focus of analysis can be upon different levels according to the aims of the research, the gathering, and the audience. Many other Futures methods can be used alongside it. For example, my Harmonic Circles method (Anthony 2007, 2010a) can be used as part of the worldview/paradigm level, as it encourages participants to reflect upon their worldview and biases.

These are CLA’s four levels:

  • The litany examines the “surface” of the issue—empirical and verifiable data, what can be readily seen and measured, or what is typically seen when there is no attempt to look deeper. Data at this level can be useful in making immediate changes, but may be limited if participants lack a broader understanding of the problem.
  • The social/systems level identifies underlying systemic issues. The greater depth allows stakeholders to deepen their understanding of the situation and place the data in greater context.
  • The worldview/paradigm level examines the paradigmatic and civilisational factors which affect the issue. Futures thinking which addresses this level can help create the conditions for a paradigm shift. We can envisage new futures and devise new strategies.
  • The myth/metaphor level uncovers the myths, metaphors, and deeper psycho-spiritual drivers of issues. It is at the mythic and metaphorical level that postconventional methods come into play. Most notably, other ways of knowing can be used.


Integral Futures (Richard Slaughter 2003, 2006).

This approach to Futures  uses Ken Wilber’s Integral Operating System and Four Quadrant system to deconstruct and analyse futures. The four quadrants are the social, the cultural, the empirical, and the first-person. Most notably, Integral Futures acknowledges the transpersonal realms and the perennial philosophy of the Eastern world. This sees consciousness as evolving from pre-personal (unconsciousness), to conscious/rational, and then to transpersonal.


Visioning, where idealised futures are imagined and planned, is in itself neutral in terms of the application of ways of knowing, but is an ideal situation to allow intuitive and emotive cognitive processes to be employed.


Scenarios may work best where deeply reflective work is done beforehand, opening spaces for alternative futures to emerge (Curry & Shultz 2009). Causal Layered Analysis, in combination with creative and intuitive thinking, can be used here.

Harmonic Circles (Marcus T. Anthony 2007, 2010a).[xiii]

This tool invites the user to reflect deeply upon his/her worldview and biases, via a depth-psychology approach. It employs a free association method to assist the user in tapping into the unconscious, and is compatible with non-ordinary states of consciousness.

Integrated Inquiry (Marcus T. Anthony 2010b).

This recently-developed alternative research method combines intuitive and rational ways of knowing, as the researcher goes about investigating his subject matter. The researcher pays as much attention to the inner world of thoughts, feelings, and dreams as to the external environment. Foresight and Futures practioners can use it during their research.

 Integrated intelligence and other ways of knowing (Marcus T. Anthony 2008, 2010c).

Integrated intelligence (INI) assumes that the mind extends beyond the brain, and that the information that is “out there” can be consciously accessed via feelings, images, dreams, auditory prompts, and so on. The process incorporates non-ordinary states of consciousness, achieved through deep relaxation and physiological self-control. INI can be employed as an assumed genuine human capacity, or used as a provocation. In the latter case, it is not necessary to “believe” in it, merely to go about futures work employing specific INI tools and using them as prompts toward the end of achieving more innovative and creative thinking.


The Purpose of Postconventional Approaches

What is the purpose of allowing such alternative thinking to be part of Futures and Foresight work? Sohail Inayatullah puts it this way:

“Futures thinking ultimately can go far as mapping and changing memes and fields of reality.” (Inayatullah 2008)

This is a contentious issue, but one with which I concur. There is a great deal of scientific evidence to support the ideas of non-local fields of consciousness and collective intelligence (McTaggart 2007, Grof 2000, Sheldrake 2003, Radin 2006), and just as much skepticism (Dawkins 2006, Blackmore 2003, de Glasse Tyson 2001). However, it should be pointed out that the purpose of the employment of Deep Futures tools should not be as a means to change people’s belief structures or worldviews. Such an approach would be a violation of the participants’ rights, and an abuse of the role of teacher/futurist as facilitator. Instead, Deep Futures can be used as a way to incorporate a broader range of perspectives and types of data, to act as a deliberate provocation, and to break through entrenched ways of thinking about and perceiving the world and its many possible futures.

Much of what is true of Causal Layered Analysis is true of Deep Futures in general. Inayatullah (2008b) points out that the goal of CLA is the integration of the four levels, to honour each, and allow the expanded understanding which emerges to help us better prepare for, and consciously develop, our futures. As Inayatullah writes:

Each level is true, and solutions need to be found at each level. Thus policy solutions can be deeper. Litany interventions lead to short-term solutions, easy to grasp, packed with data. Systemic answers require interventions by efficiency experts. Governmental policies linked to partnership with the private sector often results. Worldview change is much harder and longer term. It requires seeking solutions from outside the framework in which the solution has been defined. And myth solutions require deepest interventions, as this requires telling a new story, rewiring the brain and building new memories and the personal and collective body (Inayatullah, 2008: 9).

Deep Futures in general can be used as a framework for teaching Futures Studies, for specific analyses, and for workshops and seminars. Its focus upon depth and bringing forth data and perspectives from within different layers of the problem permits other futures methods to be used alongside it. In this sense it is reminiscent of de Bono’s (2009) “six thinking hats” method, which permits a place for a broader range of cognitive processes than are typically permitted in modern education and organisations.

Taken together, CLA, interwoven with the other methods referred to here, can potentially deepen our appreciation of the forces driving change and futures. The processes create the potential for insight and for greater awareness of the forces which shape the self, from within and without. This may potentially lead to better foresight.


Effective Policy vs. Deep Policy

Deep policy goes deep. By definition. How, then, do standard policy guidelines about delivering effective policies compare to Deep Futures? The British government has developed the following criteria for policy makers. We may assume that the goal is to be inclusive, and to go deep. I list the general guidelines here, and indicate what level of Inayatullah’s Causal Layered Analysis (CLA) they address. Recall, level one is the surface/empirical, level two the social/systems, level three the worldview/paradigm, and level four the myth/metaphor.

  1. It clearly defines outcomes, taking into account the likely effect and impact of the policy in the future, five to ten years and beyond. L1
  2. It takes full account of the national and international situation. L2
  3. It takes a holistic view, looking beyond institutional boundaries to the government’s “strategic objectives.” L2
  4. It is flexible and innovative, willing to question established ways of dealing with things and encourage new and creative ideas. L3
  5. It uses the best available evidence from a wide range of sources. L1
  6. It constantly reviews existing policy to ensure it is really dealing with problems it was designed to solve without having unintended detrimental effects elsewhere. L1-L2
  7. It is fair to all people directly or indirectly affected by it and takes account of its impact more generally. L2-L3
  8. It involves all stakeholders at an early stage and throughout its development. L3
  9. It learns from experience what works and what doesn’t through systematic evaluation. L1-L4 (Kamerer 2009)

At first glance, this looks quite comprehensive. It potentially allows for all of levels of CLA, with the possible exception of a weakly represented level four, myth and metaphor.

Yet there are often problems in the implementation of policy guidelines. Firstly, governments and organisations often fail to follow their own effective policy guidelines. The United States and its allies, for example, did not invoke a deep approach in invading Iraq. They didn’t consult the Islamic World, and we can assume they did not examine their own civilisational biases. And this is not to mention the obvious lack of foresight in failing to think very far beyond the fall of Baghdad.

My second issue is in regard to the methods that can really really make policy go deep. To do this we need tools which allow policy makers to be poked and prodded into seeing things at deeper levels. Simply saying, “Let’s include the Muslims,” for example, may be limited if there are no ways for a deep level of communication to unfold, for worldview assumptions to be addressed, and for prejudice and judgment to be acknowledged. This is where CLA, used in conjunction with other methods such as Harmonic Circles, might be of great benefit.

The third observable point about effective policy guidelines going deep is that they do not address much of level four of CLA—where deeper psycho-spiritual factors come into play. And this includes the employment of intuitive and introspective ways of knowing.


Teenage drug abuse in Hong Kong

Finally, I shall address a specific policy issue in Hong Kong, and see just how deep policy and analysis went (at the time of writing). Joseph Wong (2009), a former secretary for the civil service in Hong Kong, in an article published in the South China Morning Post in Hong Kong, addressed the problem of drug abuse by teenagers in HK. This is a problem which has come to attention in recent times. Just a week before the article was written, around 700 young people were arrested, including 110 Hong Kong citizens in Shenzhen, the mainland Chinese city bordering Hong Kong. The youngest of them was only 13 years old (Wong 2009).

Hong Kong officials have tried to address the problem. Hong Kong Chief Executive Donald Tsang was stated as saying that drug abuse is a “tough enemy.” He said that voluntary drug testing at the community level would begin as soon as possible. Further, he announced that the government was studying hair-testing as a way to test for drugs. Secondary schools in a school in Tai Po district would be asked to join a pioneer scheme for drug testing in schools. (Wong 2009)

The media and discussion at the time turned to the question of drug testing, and the logistical nightmare of implementing it. The government was not unaware of the shallowness of such a focus. Donald Tsang himself pointed out that a comprehensive policy should include the problem of “mobilising the whole community, law enforcement against drug traffickers, and rehabilitation of drug takers.” (Wong 2009)

Here, Tsang is moving into the social and systems levels of the problem. But even this remains at the social/systems level, and does not address worldview and mythic levels three and four of CLA.

Within this situation, we can see that CLA provides a framework which enables us to at least observe the depth of the policy.

The next question which follows is: what factors which underpin teenage drug taking have not been addressed? We still have not really asked why students are taking drugs. Some community members have been quick to point this out. Some have said the young people are bored. There is nothing fun to do. But is this the entire answer?

We could go deeper still, and ask if modern life in HK genuinely addresses deeper psycho-spiritual needs of human beings. This is a level four issue, where other ways of knowing, inner worlds, passion, feeling, a sense of connection, and deeper meanings come into play. We might note that Hong Kong is almost the archetypal money and machines society, famous (perhaps infamous) for its finance-based culture and concrete and glass skyline.

Another issue is whether the policy addressed all stakeholders. What about the teenagers themselves? Are we really addressing their needs? This would require an expansion of analysis to become truly holistic, including looking at what the education system is doing to the young. Cultural issues come into play, as the Hong Kong education system is still strongly Confucian, with memorisation, rote learning, and testing dominating. Society is very hierarchical and super competitive. It’s the neo-Darwinian paradigm (Loye 2004) in operation, and students who fail are often just left to sleep in class, or put in the back row (with the best students up in front). Because of the focus upon work and “getting ahead,” many teenagers barely see their parents, who often work long hours. The psychological implications for teenagers are obvious.

In China, where the central policy of “scientific development” lies at the heart the Communist party’s vision of the future, up to twenty five million of the eighty million teenage Internet users are addicted to the Net; numerous military-style boot camps have sprung up to help cope with the problem (Free To Make 2009). In Hong Kong, some children are developing “biophobia,” and are scared of trees and of walking barefoot on grass (K, 2009).Some argue that the internet deepens understanding and awareness, but many would disagree. A recent US study found that 40 per cent of Twitter chat is “pointless babble,” along the lines of “I am eating a sandwich now” (Forty Per Cent 2009). This is not a deep future, but one of mindless distraction.

Shallow policy initiatives begin by asking how we can get teenagers to start taking drug tests. The very lack of depth in such policy may reflect the lack of personal connection in Hong Kong society. The government is often seen as aloof and unaccountable, and not truly representative of the people. Seen in this context, the shallow response of government reflects a top-down, hierarchical power structure, which lacks genuine relationship with the people. Deep policy in a perfect world would consider a more holistic range of factors, or at least acknowledge their impact on the young people.



What will come of Postconventional Futures Studies remains to be seen. Its central processes and other ways of knowing may become more acceptable to governments and educational institutions in the future. It may be that the other ways of knowing will remain “other,” limiting Postconventional Futures to a position on the fringes of mainstream discourse.

Nonetheless, it is my contention that PFS methods may potentially enhance Foresight and Futures practice, including policy-making processes. PFS may help us create Deep Futures. Money and machines are not enough to sustain our species. We can no longer afford business as usual. As the Joshua Bell anecdote posted at the beginning of this paper suggests, something subtle yet crucial is missing from developed cultures, with their rush to achieve external gratification. The critical/rational worldview which focuses upon these values has created an impasse in the development of materialistic, developed cultures. A shift in thinking is required. Yet even this may not be enough. We may also require a shift in feeling (as a way of knowing), in relationship, in education, and in the way we perceive and create our Futures. It is my hope that we can all be part of this shift.



Anthony, Marcus (2003). “Visions Without Depth.” Journal of Futures Studies, 7(4), 55-65.

Anthony, Marcus (2005a). “Education for Transformation: Integrated Intelligence in the Knowledge Economy and Beyond.” Journal of Futures Studies, 9(3), 31-35.

Anthony, Marcus (2005b). “Integrated Intelligence and the Psycho-Spiritual Imperatives of Mechanistic Science.” Journal of Futures Studies, (10) 1, 31-48.

Anthony, Marcus (2006). “A Genealogy of the Western Rationalist Hegemony.” Journal of Futures Studies. May 2006, 10 (4): 25 – 38.

Anthony, Marcus (2007). “Harmonic Circles: A New Futures Tool.” Foresight, 9 (5), 23-34.

Anthony, Marcus (2008). Integrated Intelligence. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Anthony, Marcus (2010a). “Civilisational Clashes and Harmonic Circles.” Futures, Upcoming, 2010.

Anthony, Marcus (2010b). The Professor’s Other Brain. Hong Kong: Benjamin Franklin Press Asia.

Anthony, Marcus (2010c). Beyond the Frontiers of Human Intelligence. Hong Kong: Benjamin Franklin Press Asia.

Blackmore, Susan, (2003). Consciousness: An Introduction. Oxford: Hodder & Stoughton.

Bourke, Robert (2009). “From Strategic Foresight to Conversations about Alternative and Desired Futures Using Scenarios to Transform the Present.” Journal of Futures Studies. 13 (4), 99-104

Building Harmonious Society Crucial for China’s Progress: Hu, (2005). People’s Daily Online. Retrieved January 11, 2005, from

Bussey, M. (2009) “Six Shamanic Concepts: Charting the between in futures work”. Foresight, 11 (2) 29-42.

Curry, Andrew, and Shultz, Wendy (2009). “Roads less travelled: Different methods, different futures.” Journal of Futures Studies. 13 (4), 35-60.

Dator, Jim (2009). “The Unholy Trinity Plus One.” Journal of Futures Studies, 13 (3), 33-47.

McCartney, Jane (2009). “Internet Addiction Among China’s Teenagers Spawns Brutal Boot Camps.” Accessed 25.10.09.

Dawkins, Richard (2006). The God Delusion. London: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

De Bono, Edward (2009). Think! Before it’s too Late! London: Random House.

de Grasse Tyson, Neil, (2001). “Coming to our Senses.” Natural History. New York,  110(2),  84.

Eisler, Rianne (2004). “A Multi-linear Theory of Cultural Evolution.” In: Loye, David ed. The Great Adventure: Toward a Fully Human Theory of Evolution. New York: Suny.

“Forty Per Cent of Twitter Messages Pointless Babble”. 17.08.09. Accessed 25.10.09.

“Free to Make a Killing” (2009). South China Morning Post (Hong Kong), 23.08.09.

Grof, Stan (2000). Psychology of the Future. New York: Suny.

Groff, Linda (2008). “Religious Diversity, Interreligious Dialogue, and Alternative Religious Futures: Challenges for an Interdependent World.” Journal of Futures Studies, August 2008.

Hawkins, David (2002). Power vs. Force: An Anatomy of Consciousness. London: Hay House.

Inayatullah, Sohail. (2002a). Questioning the Future. Taipei: Tamkang University Press.

Inayatullah, Sohail. (2002b). “Alternative Futures of Genetics and Disability.” Retrieved January 22, 2007, from

Inayatullah, Sohail (2004). “Causal Layered Analysis: Theory, Historical Context, and Case Studies.” In Inayatullah, Sohail (ed.) The Causal Layered Analysis Reader. Taipei, Tamkang University Press.

Inayatullah, Sohail (2008). “Six Pillars: Futures Thinking for Transforming.” Foresight, 10 (1), 4-21.

Inayatullah, Sohail (2009). “Questioning Scenarios.” Journal of Futures Studies, 13 (4),  75-80.

Jacobson, Leonard (2008). Journey into Now. Sydney: Conscious Living.

Jung, Carl  (1989). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Vintage.

K, Angela (2009), “Chickens Have Feathers”. The Malaysian Insider. 25.10.09. Retrieved 25.10.09.

Kaku, Michio. (1997) Visions. New York: Anchor.

Kamerer, Peter (2009) “Learning From the Past.” South China Morning Post, 29.07.09.

Klein, Garry (2003). The Power of Intuition. New York: Doubleday.

Kuhn, Thomas (1986). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lombardo, Thomas (2007). Contemporary Futurist Thought. Bloomington (IN):Authorhouse.

Loye, David, (2004). “Darwin, Maslow, and the Fully Human Theory of Evolution.” In: D. Loye, ed. The Great Adventure: Toward a Fully Human Theory of Evolution. New York: State University of New York Press, 20-38.

Laszlo, Ervin (2004). Science and the Akashic Field. Rochester: Inner Traditions

McTaggart, Lynn (2007). The Intention Experiment. New York: Free Press.

Milojević, Ivana, (2005). Educational Futures: Dominant and Contesting Visions. New York: Routledge.

Moffett, James, (1994). “On to the past: Wrong-headed School Reform.” Phi Delta Kappan, 75(8), 584-590.

Niasbett, John (1996). Megatrends 2000. New York: Smithmark Publishers.

Naisbett, John (2007) Mind Set. New York: Collins.

Pickstone, John (2000). Ways of Knowing: A New History of Science, Technology and Medicine. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Pink, Daniel (2005). A Whole New Mind. New York: Riverhead Trade.

Radin, Dean, (2006). Entangled Minds. New York: Paraview.

Sardar, Zia., (1998). Postmodernism and the Other. London: Pluto Press.

Sheldrake, Rupert, McKenna, Terrence, & Abraham, Ralph. (2001). Chaos, Creativity, and Cosmic Consciousness. Rochester: Park Street Press.

Simons, Daniel and Chabris, Chris (1999). “Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events.” Perception, 1999, Vol. 28, 1059- 1074.

Slaughter, Richard., (2003). “Integral Futures—a new Model for Futures Enquiry and Practice.”

Available from:

(Accessed 7 July 2006).

Slaughter, Richard. (2006). “Beyond the Mundane—Towards Post-Conventional Futures Practice.” The

Journal of Futures Studies, 10 (4), 15-24.

Sun, Wukong, (2007). “A Fake Story about Fake Buns.” Asia Times (online). Accessed 10.07.08.

Tarnas, R., (2000). The Passion of the Western Mind. London: Pimlico.

Torff, Bruce., & Sternberg, Richard., 2001. “Intuitive Conceptions Among Learners and Teachers.” In:

B. Torff, & R. Sternberg (eds.) Understanding and Teaching the Intuitive Mind. London: LEA, 3-26.

Weingarten, Gene (2007). “Pearls Before Breakfast”. Washington Post (online), 08.04.07. Accessed 20.10.09.

Wilber, Ken. (2000). Sex, Ecology, Spirituality. Boston: Shambhala.

Wong, Joseph (2009). “A Tricky Dilemma.” South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). 03.07.09




[i] I have used upper case for “Foresight”, “Futures” and “Futures Studies”, where the reference is to the disciplines of Foresight and Futures, but lower case where referring to “foresight” as a verb, and “futures” in the general sense (as the plural of “future”). I have also used upper case for the various branches of Futures Studies, and the formal concepts and tools of Futures Studies, including the tools which I have developed.

[ii] Video footage of the performance can be seen on, and at


[iii] Klein (2003) also uses the example of weather forecasters.

[iv] For a summary of the evidence and arguments for mystical intuition, see Radin 2006, Sheldrake 2003, McTaggart 2007, and Anthony 2008, 2010c (upcoming).

[v] The mystical spiritual worldview is not really a single philosophy. I use the term to connect multiple expressions of culture, which share the commonality of seeing a mystical thread running through history. These cultures see minds as being connected to a kind of spiritual noosphere, and human beings as being capable of accessing this integrated intelligence (Anthony 2008). Examples include many indigenous cultures, much of ancient Greek culture, Christian mysticism, the European Romantics of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the alternative culture movement of the 1960s-’70s.

[vi] Elsewhere (Anthony 2005b) I have addressed the characteristics and problematiques of the knowledge economy which I feel necessitate a broader range of ways of knowing (including the intuitive and creative) if people are to thrive.

[vii] Slaughter (2003) distinguishes his Integral Futures Studies—predicated upon the work of Ken Wilber—from Postconventional Futures. However, for the sake of simplicity I have placed them in the one category, as they both honour a full range of ways of knowing and incorporate ideas from other branches of Futures Studies.

[viii] For physics and systems thinking see Ervin Laszlo (2004) and Sheldrake, McKenna, & Abraham (2001). For developments in consciousness studies see Grof (2000), Radin (2006), Sheldrake (2003).

[ix] www.shapingtomorrow .com

[x] Obviously the application of a tool like Scenarios would vary greatly when used in each branch, because the ways of knowing vary. The same applies to any given tool.

[xi] Hawkins, a modern mystic, posits a hierarchical model of cognitive development, both individual and collective human. He argues that there are limits to the rational mind, and that by itself it is poor at contextualising data, because it is inherently dissociated from the other, and from the world. I have argued this position also (Anthony 2008).

[xii] Technoscience is science driven by modern capitalist society (Pickstone 2000). Pickstone argues that it constitutes a new way of knowing.

[xiii] I have used these three tools extensively in my own research and futures work. However, they are in the early stages of development, and require more extensive application in real time and space.